accountant - the official who compiles scores from judges and computes marks that are awarded by judges to determine the placement of competitors
axel - this is a jump on which the skater takes off from the forward inside edge and lands on the back outside edge of the opposite foot. There are single, double and triple versions.
blur spin - an upright spin where the skater spins faster and faster by bringing the legs and arms in tight against the body to achieve the maximum speed of rotation
bracket - a turn where the skater changes direction by going from a forward outside edge on one skate to a backward inside edge on the same foot, or, a forward inside edge to a backward outside edge
camel - a spin performed on one leg while the skater's other leg is extended in the air and parallel to the ice. The body remains in this spiral position while spinning.
choctaw - a turn where the skater changes directions by going from an inside forward edge to a backward outside edge on the other skate, or, an outside forward edge to a backward inside edge on the other skate
closed draw - a draw in which the referee draws numbers from a container in the presence of judges to determine skating order for an event
combination jump - a series of at least two jumps completed with no steps in between the jumps
combination spin - an extended maneuver made up of two or more spins during which the skater must change feet and positions while maintaining speed
counter - a turn where the skater changes direction by going from a forward outside edge to a backward outside edge (or inside to inside) on the same foot. the turn is made "against" the curve of the skating blade.
crossover - a method of turning corners and gaining speed by crossing one foot over the other
death spiral - a move in pairs skating in which the male holds his partner's hand and pulls her in a circle around him and the female glides on one foot with her body nearly horizontal to the ice
draw - the method of determining the skating order for an event
edge - each skate has two edges, the inside edge and the outside edge and they are on each side of the groove in the center. The edge is divided into two sections forward and back. On most maneuvers specific edges are supposed to be used.
edge jump - any jump where the skater takes off from and edge of the skating foot without assistance from the other foot
factored placements - these are numerical values given to placements in the short and long programs. When multiplied, they determine a skater's final placement.
flip - a jump made with the assistance of the toe pick which on takeoff is from the back inside edge of one foot and the landing is on the back outside edge of the other foot
flying camel - a combination move of a jump spin where the skater lands in the camel position
flying sit spin - a combination move where the skater performs a jump spin and then assumes the sitting position in mid-air and then continues with the sit spin after landing
footwork - a skating term covering, but not limited to, the following: stroking crossovers, three-turn, mohawk, choctaw, counter, rocker, bracket, step sequence, spiral and spiral sequence
free - at any given moment, a skater is usually skating on one foot and the other is called the free foot. By extension every other part on that side of the body is called "free" as free shoulder, free hip or free side etc.
free skating - a portion of the competition, usually 4 or 5 minutes long, where the skater performs movements, including jumps and spins, that are choreographed to background music
jump factors - the jump factors (scale of 1 - 10) of the various jumps are:
Single Jumps: Salchow - 2; Split - 2; Toe Loop - 2; Flip - 3; Loop - 3; Lutz - 4; Axel - 4
Double Jumps: Salchow - 4; Toe Loop - 3; Loop - 5; Flip - 5; Lutz - 6; Axel - 7
Triple Jumps: Salchow - 6; Triple Salchow - 6; Triple Toe Loop - 6; Triple Loop - 8; Triple Flip - 8; Triple Lutz - 8; Triple Axel - 10.
jump sequence - a series of jumps that contains a change of foot or step(s) in between jumps
layback spin - a spin where the back is arched and the head and shoulders lie back
lift - any move in pairs skating where the male skater lifts his partner off the ice
loop - a type of edge jump where the skater takes off from and lands on the same back outside edge
Lutz - a jump where the skater, while moving in a backward curve, uses the toe pick to rotate in the opposite direction, taking off from a back outside edge and landing on the other back outside edge
mohawk - a turn going from one foot to another where the skater changes directions by going from an outside forward edge on one skate to an outside backward edge on the other skate, or an inside forward edge to backward inside edge on the other skate. Where does the name "mohawk come from?
In the book "Figure Skating History: The Evolution of Dance on Ice" by Lynn Copley-Graves, she says:
"In the 1800's the British were fascinated by stories of American Indians. A few American Indians had been brought to England to entertain the British with war dances. Some skaters who saw them thought that the spread-eagle pose done in Indian ceremonies resembled the turned-out position of a turn they did on ice. the tracing made by that turn resembled and Indian bow, so they named the turn the "mohawk" after the visiting tribe from New York state. This analogy fits the inside-to-inside mohawk. Skater practiced mohawks in repetition on a circle 8. Maxwell Witham and H.E. Vandervell compiled the rules of English style in the first comprehensive study of figure skating in any language in their book, "A System of Figure Skating", first published in 1869n and revised in 1880. In the 1880 version they illustrated and described the outside-to-outside mohawk as done in the Foxtrot today: "A very pretty combination of the outside forward with the outside backwards has lately come into vogue and it can be skated by every one who is capable of turning out his toes sufficiently so as to get into the 'Spread-eagle' position. This figure was last year introduced into the Club figures on ice and christened by the name of Mohawk." According to Earnest Jones, writing in, "The elements of Skating", in 1931, the name "mohawk" for this turn was derived from a cut-like step used by the Mohawk Indians in there war dances. Two editions later, Max Witham described the choctaw, named for another Indian tribe: "A variation of the Mohawk has lately been introduced and is called a "Choctaw"....the skater goes from the outside forward of one foot to the inside back of the other".
open draw - a draw in which the skaters themselves determine skating order by drawing numbers from a closed pouch
referee - the official who has overall charge of a competition and serves as chairperson of the judges' panel
Salchow - an edge jump where the skater takes off from the back inside edge of one foot and lands on the back outside edge of the other
sit spin - a spin where the skater crouches close to the ice with the skating leg bent and the other leg extended to the side
spiral - any move where the skater glides along the ice on one skate with the non-skating leg in the air to the rear
spiral sequence - a series of spirals where the skater traces a pattern over the ice
starting order - the sequence of skaters to compete as determined by a draw
step sequence - a series of steps done in rapid succession in time to the music
stroking - a method of gaining speed seemingly without effort by pushing off the inside edges in alternation
throw - a pairs move where the male lifts his partner and throws her away from him. She continues the move with a mid-air spin landing on one foot.
toe loop - a jump that is assisted by the toe pick where the skater takes off from a back outside edge and land on the same edge
toe pick - the teeth at the front of each skate blade that are often used in jumps and spins
toe rake - same as toe picks
toe wally - a toe loop where the takeoff is from the back inside edge instead of the outside edge
trace - the line formed by the skater's blade on the ice
twist - in pairs skating, a move where the male lifts and throws his partner, then catches her on landing after she has performed a double or triple twist in the air
waltz - a simple jump for beginners where the takeoff is from the forward outside edge and the landing is on the back outside edge of the other foot after a half revolution in the air